Jerusalem: What's The Deal?

Posted on Tue, Dec 26, 2017 @ 06:17 PM


What is the significance of the US recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and moving its embassy there from Tel Aviv?

Every six months for more than 20 years, each succeeding US administration has had to choose whether to make this move. It’s the result of a 1995 law passed by the US Congress requiring the embassy’s relocation. In order for it to take effect, the president must agree or sign a six-month waiver. None of the three preceding presidents have been willing to forgo security concerns and order the move. But recently Donald Trump announced the transfer, albeit delayed for a couple of years.

Recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s capital is something no other nation has done in the 70 years since the declaration of statehood. This really is the crux of the issue. Can the whole city be declared the capital of one side of this conflict without a peace accord? Let’s consider what led to this.

Following the end of the First World War and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the British government stepped in to bring security to the region. But it would not be easy. Jerusalem was the capital of British-governed Palestine and often the center of activity.

Over the next 20 years Britain’s commitment to her peace-keeping role changed, and she chose to relinquish power to the United Nations in 1947. The UN proposed to divide the territory between Jews and Palestinians and make Jerusalem a separate internationalized city under UN trusteeship. David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s future prime minister, was willing to give up on the whole of Jerusalem as the capital of the new state, but rather than having the city internationalized, he wanted to partition it.

This is in fact what happened as a result of the ensuing war between invading Arab armies and the new state of Israel.

With the 1949 ceasefire, Jerusalem was divided by a green line on the armistice map. The western part of the city became Israel’s de facto capital, later housing its parliament building, the Knesset. But it was never internationally recognized. The eastern half, including the Old City with its holy sites, came under Jordanian control. Jews could no longer reach the Western Wall to pray. That’s how things were until the Six Day War in 1967, when Israel was attacked and unexpectedly captured a large swathe of territory, including East Jerusalem and the Old City.

And that’s when Jerusalem took on renewed significance in Israeli thinking, as confirmed in an interview I did a few years ago with Bernard Wasserstein, a noted scholar of modern Jewish history. He said, “The centrality of Jerusalem in Zionist ideology probably really dates only from 1967. There was very little demand in Israel or in the Jewish world between 1948 and 1967 for any campaign to liberate Jerusalem or for irredentist capture of the eastern part of the city. There were complaints, of course, about the Jordanian refusal to allow Jews to pray at the Western Wall or to visit the ancient Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, as had been laid down in the Israeli-Jordanian armistice agreement in 1949. But these were part of the general grievances to do with the continuing state of war between the two countries. They weren’t really central to Zionist demands or thinking at that time. From June 1967 onward, Jerusalem became very central.”

Israel’s “eternal and undivided capital” is a phrase often used today in the political sphere. It has a religious sound about it and makes a claim to more than a certain physical permanence. But it’s really only a feature of the past 50 years.

Wasserstein also said that “1967 was a kind of religious moment even for secular Jews. Zionism became a kind of secular religion for many Jews in the Diaspora, particularly in the period between 1967 and perhaps the early 1980s. They had shuffled off much of their religious devotion, but they were looking for some nonreligious form of connection to their heritage and found it in Zionism. And in the stones of the Western Wall—the very physical relics of Jewish history that were captured at that moment—they found a focus for that kind of secular religious devotion.”

From the biblical point of view, Abraham, the progenitor of both the Israelites and several of the Arab peoples, never had a capital. About 400 years later, following their exodus from Egypt, Abraham’s Israelite descendants centered their administration not at Jerusalem but first at Shiloh, in what later became Samaria. It was another 300 years before Jerusalem, then a small hilltop Jebusite city, was captured by Israel’s king David and made his capital.

The time came four centuries later when the people of Judah were taken captive by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar. After an 18-month siege of Jerusalem, he burned the city and its temple, laying it waste for 70 years. Though some returned to rebuild the city and a Jewish kingdom was established, the Romans destroyed the city and the temple once again in 70 CE. Between then and 1917—that’s a span of more than 1,800 years—Jerusalem was not a Jewish city. And so we come to today, when it’s in Israeli hands but divided between Jews and Palestinians.

While there are biblical prophecies that speak about Jerusalem as the center of God’s future kingdom on the earth for all peoples, the time for that has clearly not yet come. The prophet Isaiah says: “Now it shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established on the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow to it. Many people shall come and say, ‘Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem” (Isaiah 2:2–3). 

But now is simply not that time. The best that can be achieved in today’s world is through a creative, diplomatic solution, which would allow all the current residents space to grow and develop in peace and security. And that is what most government leaders know to be the answer. Indeed, such a framework already exists.

According to Wasserstein, “a draft agreement was already reached on October 31, 1995, between two senior accredited negotiators of the Israeli and Palestinian governments. It provided for essentially Arab control of Arab-inhabited areas and Jewish control of Jewish-inhabited areas. It wasn’t a complete agreement, but it remains on the table and it formed the basis of the proposals that were made by [Ehud] Barak with the effective approval of President Clinton at Camp David in the summer of 2000. My feeling is that that is going to be the basis of any agreement reached about Jerusalem, not because I happen to think it’s fair or sensible, but because it is the only agreement that brings the politics of Jerusalem into some form of harmony with its existing social geography. That is a fact that no amount of hot air about Jerusalem being more important to this religion or that religion can change.”

Can Jerusalem become a city of peace, undivided in this era? With sufficient political will on both sides, eventually yes. Will it ever be eternally a city at peace? Yes, but as we’ve seen, that is for a future time. For more on this subject, see Vision’s special report and the video version of "Jerusalem: What's the Deal?"

Tags: Israeli-Palestian conflict, 1967 June War, Jerusalem debate

Middle East Peace off the Map over Disputed Land E1

Posted on Tue, Dec 18, 2012 @ 04:53 PM

middle east conflictAbout 12 years ago I interviewed the mayor of the Israeli West Bank settlement, Maale Adumim. Benny Kashriel told me then that his city would eventually become part of Jerusalem, being linked to it by annexed contiguous land. Indeed he regarded Maale Adumim as part of the Jerusalem metroplis even then and had publicity brochures that proclaimed as much. The still open and barren land separating the two cities is known as Development Area EI (East 1).

Now it is back in the headlines following the upgrading of Palestine to non-member observer state by an overwhelming UN vote. Seemingly in retaliation, the government of Benjamin Netanyahu revived Israeli planning activity in the E1 sector making way for construction of up to 3400 housing units there and in other parts of Jerusalem. As tensions rise in this tit-for-tat scrapping, attempts at Middle East peace are once again on hold. The reality is that if E1 becomes a developed area between Israeli-held East Jerusalem and the 40,000 Israeli residents of Maale Adumim, the possibility of a Palestinian State with meaningful access between the northern and southern parts of the West Bank and with East Jerusalem as its capital, becomes a much more complicated prospect and perhaps moot if compromises over road connections fail.

It was the Labor government of Yitzhak Rabin that created the E1 area in 1994 in support of Maale Adumim (which Rabin had authorized in 1976). The city is regarded as a gateway to Jerusalem from the Jordan Valley. As a result, it seems unlikely that any Israeli government will give up the strategically positioned enclave, preferring rather to enhance its security by connecting it materially to Jerusalem. 

Tags: jerusalem, Middle East Peace, Israeli-Palestian conflict, middle east politics, israel, Palestine

The Danger Posed By the Arab-Israeli Conflict

Posted on Mon, Dec 18, 2006 @ 04:39 PM
The area is a magnet for many peoples, many religions, and many political and social persuasions. Because of this conflux of geography, history, and religious and cultural associations, Jerusalem is at its epicenter

The danger that the Arab-Israeli conflict, and specifically the Jerusalem Question, poses to the peace of the world in the twenty-first century is not new. What is today Israel and Palestine, on the narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean coast and the Jordan River, was once the crossroads of the ancient civilized world, the bridge between the continents of Africa, Asia and Europe.

As a result, it has been the battleground for imperial powers from ancient times till the present. It has also become, in succession, central to each of three dominant world religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The area is a magnet for many peoples, many religions, and many political and social persuasions.

Because of this conflux of geography, history, and religious and cultural associations, the city at its epicenter is also an enduring lodestone. And like the region of which it is a part, Jerusalem has become a fuse of international conflict. The past 2,000-year history of the city alone reveals a complex international web of religious, diplomatic and political intrigue. Bitter and bloody conflict rent the city several times during the Roman imperial domination of the eastern Mediterranean basin.

The Crusader period (1099–1187) saw Jerusalem suffer untold bloodshed in the clash of Muslim and papal intentions. By the nineteenth century, the city had become the mirror of petty consular rivalries between European nation-states squabbling in the twilight of the Ottoman Empire.

The first two decades of the twentieth century found the city of peace at the center of immensely significant geopolitical considerations. The colonial powers of Britain and France vied over regional influence, control of the Suez route to the East, and the railways and pipelines across the Syrian Desert to the oil-rich Persian Gulf.

During the period of the British Mandate (1922–1948) Jerusalem was established as the administrative capital of Palestine. Following the declaration of the State of Israel in 1948 and the subsequent Arab-Israeli war, the city was divided de facto between Jordanians and Israelis, crudely partitioned by no-man’s-land.

The June 1967 occupation of East Jerusalem by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and the Knesset’s immediate annexation of the eastern side of the city, far from reuniting Jerusalem (as Israeli mythology would have it), created a vexatious problem for Israelis and Palestinians, and for every other nation that became embroiled in it. Unexpectedly, the early 1990s witnessed the single most dramatic breakthrough in Israeli-Palestinian relations in almost fifty years.

The secretly negotiated 1993 Oslo Agreements seemed to hold the promise of resolution to one of the region’s most persistent problems and at the same time of bringing peace to Jerusalem. Yet despite thousands of hours of creative negotiations, signified by recognition of the peacemaking efforts by the world’s premier peace institute, the Jerusalem Question remained as problematic as ever.

As the twentieth century closed, Jerusalem's future was the publicly cited deal-breaker in attempts by the United States to resolve the long-standing Arab-Israeli conflict. The city itself had become the new symbol of the intractability of the more-than-100-year-old Arab-Zionist impasse (to be continued).

Tags: jerusalem, arab-israeli conflict, christianity, Islam., Israeli-Palestian conflict, Judaism